Fistula – what is referred to as?

A fistula is an unnatural opening between two organs or blood vessels that should not be joined. They can appear between the intestine and the epidermis, between the vagina and the rectum, and anywhere else in the body. Fistulas typically form in the area of the anus. There are different stages that a fistula can go through on a person’s body.

A complete fistula happens when a pocket with two openings forms over time. This pocket can be full of abscess or pus. Just one exterior opening characterizes an incomplete fistula. A blind fistula has one side that is open and the other side that is closed. If you don’t get gastrointestinal fistulas treatment , it can cause major complications.

Causes- the possible factors that can causes a fistula:

Fistulas can develop for many reasons on the human body. There are two possible causes, natural development and the aftereffects of trauma or medical procedures. Most cases of anal fistula can develop on their own over time. A fistula between the gut and vagina can develop in rare cases.

Fistulas at the anus are more common in those with gastrointestinal disorders such Chron’s disease, colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. After childbirth, a fistula can develop in women too, connecting the anus to the vagina.

Risk factors of Fistula – the possible triggers:

The following are some potential risk factors for the development of fistula:

  • Diabetes
  • Radiation therapy
  • Smoking
  • Dermatosis
  • Excessive spicy food intake
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • HIV Aids
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Syphilis and Chlamydia

Fistula – The significance types that are involved:

As we know, the most frequent type of fistula is an anal fistula. On the other hand, there is a wide variety of fistulas that you should be aware of:

Anal fistula: 

There are three distinct varieties of anus fistula. It is called an anorectal fistula when a opening develops between the anal canal and the epidermis near the anal opening. Rectovaginal or anovaginal fistula is the medical term for an opening that forms between the rectum or anus and the vagina. A fistula can sometimes form between the colon and the vagina. This is called a colovaginal fistula.

Intestine fistula: 

Enteroenteric fistula occurs when an opening develops between two sections of the gut. Both the small intestine and the colon can develop fistulas with the skin.

Urinary Tract fistula: 

Additionally, fistula may develop between the urine bladder and the uterus. The opening between the urine bladder and the vagina, or the urethra and the vagina, can sometimes develop a hole.

The signs of fistula – you need to notice:

The symptoms and signs of a fistula depend mostly on what part of the body is affected.

i) Anal fistula

  • Skin irritation
  • Growing pains
  • Fever with chills
  • Painful bowel movement
  • Foul smell from the anus
  • Fatigue

ii) Intestine fistula

  • Abdominal pain
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Severe gas or diarrhea
  • Weight loss

iii) Urinary Tract

  • Urinary discomfort
  • Frequent urination
  • Smelly and cloudy urine 
  • Muddy coloured urine
  • Passing wind or stools

Fistula – The different diagnostic procedures that help in identifying:

Physical examination, computed tomography scan, and other procedures like barium enema, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, upper endoscopy, or fistulogram may be used to identify fistulas.

A fistulogram involves injecting a dye into the fistula and then using X-rays to examine the area. The fistula is easier to see on X-rays after being dyed. For rectal fistulas, the dye is introduced into the rectum in the same way as an enema. During the operation, the dye needs to be “held” within.

Dye is inserted by a tiny catheter into an external fistula. A patient may need to move around on the X-ray table so that they may be imaged from a variety of angles. Staying steady is essential during this X-ray, as it is throughout every X-ray.

Treatment options that are help in getting rid of fistula:

Your Fistula Specialist Doctor may prescribe medication or recommend surgery to treat your fistula, depending on its severity. Regardless of the common practice of using antibiotics to manage fistula-related infections, fistulotomy remains the gold standard for treating fistulas.

In a fistulotomy technique, the fistula is surgically opened so that its contents may be drained. The drain is removed, and the wound is left to heal on its own. The doctor will decide how extensive a fistulotomy to do based on the size of the fistula.

In order to cut the fistula open as part of the fistulotomy operation, your doctor will create an incision. If the fistula development is infected or is bleeding pus or blood, antibiotics will be required in addition to the fistulotomy.


Fibrin glue: 

Fistulas are closed with a special kind of medical glue.


Most of the time, this is a collagen matrix that is employed to occupy the fistula.


Catheters drain tiny fistulas to treat infection.

Surgical Options

Transabdominal surgery: 

An incision is made in the patient’s abdominal wall in order to reach the fistula.

Laparoscopic surgery: 

This is a minimally invasive surgery, which means that only a small cut is made and small cameras and tools are used to repair the fistula. If you are looking to undergo fistula treatment in Coimbatore to get rid off fistula.


Any fistula-related infection may be treated with antibiotics or another drug. As of yet, however, there is no drug available that can completely eliminate fistulas. Fistulas are dangerous to your health, but the high success rate of treatment should urge you to get care as soon as possible if you or someone you know has a fistula.

What to expect from the condition?

If you are going to have a fistulotomy, there isn’t much to worry about. When performing a fistulotomy, anesthesia is used to keep patients comfortable throughout the operation. As the anesthetic wears off, however, you may have some discomfort in the region where the fistulotomy was done.

It’s possible that you’ll be able to leave the hospital the same day you have your fistula treated, depending on how serious it was. Successful healing after a fistulotomy requires attention to the recovery process. Listen to your doctor’s advice on your food, exercise routine, and other physical activity. Seek help from a General Surgeon in Coimbatore if you are experiencing fistula signs.

Prognosis of the condition:

 Having a fistula is sometimes a nasty experience. Fistulas can get infected or cause pus and blood to bleed if not addressed. If not addressed promptly, they pose substantial health risks. 

Seek prompt medical help if you wish to have that nasty fistula fixed. To a limited extent, medication can help manage the illness. Fistulotomy is the recommended procedure for treating a fistula. Although it will effectively cure the fistula, it is less intrusive than major surgery.


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